For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us.
– John Winthrop (A model of Christian Charity, 1630)
Essential Questions (Key Concepts)
- How did different native societies adapt to and transform their environments through innovations in culture, resource use, and social structure?
- How did European expansion into the Western Hemisphere generate intense social, religious, political, economic competition and changes within European societies?
- In what ways did the Columbian Exchange and development of the Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere result in extensive demographic, economic, and social changes?
- Describe the divergent world views asserted by Europeans and Native Americans regarding issues such as religion, gender roles, family, land use, and power.
- How did the Spanish, French, Dutch, and British colonizers differing economic and imperial goals involving land and labor shape the social and political development of their colonies as well as their relationships with native populations?
- Describe early 17th Century British colonies on the Atlantic coast and discuss how their environmental, economic, cultural, and demographic factors led to regional differences.
- How did competition over resources between European rivals and American Indians encourage industry and trade and lead to conflict in the Americas?
- How did Transatlantic commercial, religious, philosophical, and political exchanges lead residents of the colonies to evolve in their political and cultural attitudes as they became increasingly tied to Britain and one another?
- Describe the system of slavery in the English colonies and how it reflected the specific economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of those colonies.
Please refer to APUSH Active Reader for Identifications.